Dictionary Definition
orbit
Noun
1 the (usually elliptical) path described by one
celestial body in its revolution about another; "he plotted the
orbit of the moon" [syn: celestial
orbit]
2 a particular environment or walk of life; "his
social sphere is limited"; "it was a closed area of employment";
"he's out of my orbit" [syn: sphere, domain, area, field, arena]
3 an area in which something acts or operates or
has power or control: "the range of a supersonic jet"; "the ambit
of municipal legislation"; "within the compass of this article";
"within the scope of an investigation"; "outside the reach of the
law"; "in the political orbit of a world power" [syn: scope, range, reach, compass, ambit]
4 the path of an electron around the nucleus of
an atom [syn: electron
orbit]
5 the bony cavity in the skull containing the
eyeball [syn: eye socket,
cranial
orbit, orbital
cavity] v : move in an orbit; "The moon orbits around the
Earth"; "The planets are orbiting the sun"; "electrons orbit the
nucleus" [syn: revolve]
User Contributed Dictionary
English
Etymology
Latin orbita ‘course, track’.Pronunciation

 Rhymes: ɔː(r)bɪt
Noun
 A circular or elliptical path of one object around another object.
 The Moon's orbit around the Earth takes nearly one month to complete.
 A sphere
of influence; an area of control.
 In the post WWII era, several eastern European countries came into the orbit of the Soviet Union.
 The course of one's
usual progression, or the extent of one's typical range.
 The convenience store was a heavily travelled point in her daily orbit, as she purchased both cigarettes and lottery tickets there.
 The bony cavity containing the eyeball; the eye socket.
 The path an electron takes around an atom's nucleus
 A collection of points related by the evolution function of a dynamical system.
Translations
path of one object around another
 Arabic:
 Chinese: 轨道 (guǐdào)
 Czech: oběžná dráha
 Dutch: baan
 Finnish: kiertorata
 French: orbite
 German: Umlaufbahn , Orbit
 Hungarian: űrpálya
 Italian: orbita
 Japanese: 軌道 (きどう, kidō)
 Korean: 궤도 (gwedo)
 Malayalam: ഭ്രമണപഥം (bhramaNa patham)
 Portuguese: órbita
 Russian: орбита (orbíta)
 Serbian: kružnica
 Slovene: krožnica
 Spanish: órbita
 Swedish: omloppsbana
 Turkish: yörünge
sphere of influence
course of usual progression
eye socket See eye
socket.
Verb
Synonyms
 (move around the general vicinity of): circumambulate, tag along
Translations
circle another object
 Dutch: omcirkelen, omlopen
 Finnish: kiertää
 French: orbiter
 German: umkreisen
 Japanese: 周回する (しゅうかいする, shūkaisuru), 公転する (こうてんする, kōtensuru)
 Malayalam: ഭ്രമണം ചെയ്യുക (bhramaNam cheyyuka)
 Portuguese: orbitar
 Sindhi: مَدارُ (Madaaru)
move around the general vicinity of
Derived terms
See also
Extensive Definition
In physics, an orbit is the path of
one object around a point or another body. Orbits are explained and
calculated by
Newton's law of universal gravitation and
Kepler's laws of planetary motion.
History
In the geocentric
model of the solar system, mechanisms such as the deferent
and epicycle were supposed to explain the motion of the planets
in terms of perfect spheres or rings.
The basis for the modern understanding of orbits
was first formulated by Johannes
Kepler whose results are summarized in his three
laws of planetary motion. First, he found that the orbits of
the planets in our
solar
system are elliptical, not circular (or epicyclic), as had previously
been believed, and that the sun is not located at the center of the
orbits, but rather at one focus.
Second, he found that the orbital speed of each planet is not
constant, as had previously been thought, but rather that the speed
of the planet depends on the planet's distance from the sun. And
third, Kepler found a universal relationship between the orbital
properties of all the planets orbiting the sun. For each planet,
the cube of the planet's distance from the sun, measured in
astronomical
units (AU), is equal to the square of the planet's orbital
period, measured in Earth years. Jupiter, for example, is
approximately 5.2 AU from the sun and its orbital period is 11.86
Earth years. So 5.2 cubed equals 11.86 squared, as predicted.
Isaac Newton
demonstrated that Kepler's laws were derivable from his theory of
gravitation and
that, in general, the orbits of bodies responding to the force of
gravity were conic
sections. Newton showed that a pair of bodies follow orbits of
dimensions that are in inverse proportion to their masses about their common center of
mass. Where one body is much more massive than the other, it is
a convenient approximation to take the center of mass as coinciding
with the center of the more massive body.
Planetary orbits
Within a planetary system; planets, dwarf planets, asteroids (a.k.a. minor planets), comets, and space debris orbit the central star in elliptical orbits. A comet in a parabolic or hyperbolic orbit about a central star is not gravitationally bound to the star and therefore is not considered part of the star's planetary system. To date, no comet has been observed in our solar system with a distinctly hyperbolic orbit. Bodies which are gravitationally bound to one of the planets in a planetary system, either natural or artificial satellites, follow orbits about that planet.Owing to mutual gravitational
perturbations, the eccentricities
of the orbits of the planets in our solar system vary over time.
Mercury,
the smallest planet in the Solar System, has the most eccentric
orbit. At the present epoch, Mars has the next
largest eccentricity while the smallest eccentricities are those of
the orbits of Venus and Neptune.
As two objects orbit each other, the periapsis is that point at
which the two objects are closest to each other and the apoapsis is that point at which
they are the farthest from each other. (More specific terms are
used for specific bodies. For example, perigee and apogee are the
lowest and highest parts of an Earth orbit, respectively.)
In the elliptical orbit, the center of
mass of the orbitingorbited system will sit at one focus of
both orbits, with nothing present at the other focus. As a planet
approaches periapsis, the planet will increase in speed, or
velocity. As a planet
approaches apoapsis, the planet will decrease in velocity.
Understanding orbits
There are a few common ways of understanding orbits. As the object moves sideways, it falls toward the central body. However, it moves so quickly that the central body will curve away beneath it.
 A force, such as gravity, pulls the object into a curved path as it attempts to fly off in a straight line.
 As the object moves sideways (tangentially), it falls toward the central body. However, it has enough tangential velocity to miss the orbited object, and will continue falling indefinitely. This understanding is particularly useful for mathematical analysis, because the object's motion can be described as the sum of the three onedimensional coordinates oscillating around a gravitational center.
As an illustration of an orbit around a planet,
the Newton's
cannonball model may prove useful (see image below). Imagine a
cannon sitting on top of a tall mountain, which fires a cannonball
horizontally. The mountain needs to be very tall, so that the
cannon will be above the Earth's atmosphere and we can ignore the
effects of air friction on the cannonball.
If the cannon fires its ball with a low initial
velocity, the trajectory of the ball curves downward and hits the
ground (A). As the firing velocity is increased, the cannonball
hits the ground farther (B) away from the cannon, because while the
ball is still falling towards the ground, the ground is
increasingly curving away from it (see first point, above). All
these motions are actually "orbits" in a technical sense — they are
describing a portion of an elliptical path around the center of
gravity — but the orbits are of course interrupted by striking the
Earth.
If the cannonball is fired with sufficient
velocity, the ground curves away from the ball at least as much as
the ball falls — so the ball never strikes the ground. It is now in
what could be called a noninterrupted, or circumnavigating, orbit.
For any specific combination of height above the center of gravity,
and mass of the planet, there is one specific firing velocity that
produces a circular
orbit, as shown in (C).
As the firing velocity is increased beyond this,
a range of elliptic
orbits are produced; one is shown in (D). If the initial firing
is above the surface of the Earth as shown, there will also be
elliptical orbits at slower velocities; these will come closest to
the Earth at the point half an orbit beyond, and directly opposite,
the firing point.
At a specific velocity called escape
velocity, again dependent on the firing height and mass of the
planet, an infinite orbit such as (E) is produced — a parabolic
trajectory. At even faster velocities the object will follow a
range of hyperbolic
trajectories. In a practical sense, both of these trajectory
types mean the object is "breaking free" of the planet's gravity,
and "going off into space".
The velocity relationship of two objects with
mass can thus be considered in four practical classes, with
subtypes:
1. No orbit
2. Interrupted orbits
 Range of interrupted elliptical paths
3. Circumnavigating orbits
 Range of elliptical paths with closest point opposite firing point
 Circular path
 Range of elliptical paths with closest point at firing point
4. Infinite orbits
 Parabolic paths
 Hyperbolic paths
Newton's laws of motion
In many situations relativistic effects can be neglected, and Newton's laws give a highly accurate description of the motion. Then the acceleration of each body is equal to the sum of the gravitational forces on it, divided by its mass, and the gravitational force between each pair of bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and decreases inversely with the square of the distance between them. To this Newtonian approximation, for a system of two point masses or spherical bodies, only influenced by their mutual gravitation (the twobody problem), the orbits can be exactly calculated. If the heavier body is much more massive than the smaller, as for a satellite or small moon orbiting a planet or for the Earth orbiting the Sun, it is accurate and convenient to describe the motion in a coordinate system that is centered on the heavier body, and we can say that the lighter body is in orbit around the heavier. (For the case where the masses of two bodies are comparable an exact Newtonian solution is still available, and qualitatively similar to the case of dissimilar masses, by centering the coordinate system on the center of mass of the two.)Energy is associated with gravitational fields. A
stationary body far from another can do external work if it is
pulled towards it, and therefore has gravitational potential
energy. Since work is required to separate two massive bodies
against the pull of gravity, their gravitational potential energy
increases as they are separated, and decreases as they approach one
another. For point masses the gravitational energy decreases
without limit as they approach zero separation, and it is
convenient and conventional to take the potential energy as zero
when they are an infinite distance apart, and then negative (since
it decreases from zero) for smaller finite distances.
With two bodies, an orbit is a conic
section. The orbit can be open (so the object never returns) or
closed (returning), depending on the total kinetic +
potential
energy of the system. In
the case of an open orbit, the speed at any position of the orbit
is at least the escape
velocity for that position, in the case of a closed orbit,
always less. Since the kinetic energy is never negative, if the
common convention is adopted of taking the potential energy as zero
at infinite separation, the bound orbits have negative total
energy, parabolic trajectories have zero total energy, and
hyperbolic orbits have positive total energy.
An open orbit has the shape of a hyperbola (when the velocity
is greater than the escape velocity), or a parabola (when the velocity is
exactly the escape velocity). The bodies approach each other for a
while, curve around each other around the time of their closest
approach, and then separate again forever. This may be the case
with some comets if they
come from outside the solar system.
A closed orbit has the shape of an ellipse. In the special case
that the orbiting body is always the same distance from the center,
it is also the shape of a circle. Otherwise, the point
where the orbiting body is closest to Earth is the perigee, called periapsis (less
properly, "perifocus" or "pericentron") when the orbit is around a
body other than Earth. The point where the satellite is farthest
from Earth is called apogee, apoapsis, or sometimes
apifocus or apocentron. A line drawn from periapsis to apoapsis is
the lineofapsides. This is the major axis of the ellipse, the
line through its longest part.
Orbiting bodies in closed orbits repeat their
path after a constant period of time. This motion is described by
the empirical laws of Kepler,
which can be mathematically derived from Newton's laws. These can
be formulated as follows:
 The orbit of a planet around the Sun is an ellipse, with the Sun in one of the focal points of the ellipse. Therefore the orbit lies in a plane, called the orbital plane. The point on the orbit closest to the attracting body is the periapsis. The point farthest from the attracting body is called the apoapsis. There are also specific terms for orbits around particular bodies; things orbiting the Sun have a perihelion and aphelion, things orbiting the Earth have a perigee and apogee, and things orbiting the Moon have a perilune and apolune (or, synonymously, periselene and aposelene). An orbit around any star, not just the Sun, has a periastron and an apastron.
 As the planet moves around its orbit during a fixed amount of time, the line from Sun to planet sweeps a constant area of the orbital plane, regardless of which part of its orbit the planet traces during that period of time. This means that the planet moves faster near its perihelion than near its aphelion, because at the smaller distance it needs to trace a greater arc to cover the same area. This law is usually stated as "equal areas in equal time."
 For each planet, the ratio of the cube of its semimajor axis to the square of its period is the same constant value for all planets.
Note that that while the bound orbits around a
point mass, or a spherical body with an ideal Newtonian
gravitational field, are all closed ellipses, which repeat the same
path exactly and indefinitely, any nonspherical or nonNewtonian
effects (as caused, for example, by the slight oblateness of the
Earth, or by relativistic
effects, changing the gravitational field's behavior with
distance) will cause the orbit's shape to depart to a greater or
lesser extent from the closed ellipses characteristic of Newtonian
two body motion. The 2body solutions were published by Newton in
Principia in 1687. In 1912, Karl
Fritiof Sundman developed a converging infinite series that
solves the 3body problem; however, it converges too slowly to be
of much use. Except for special cases like the Lagrangian
points, no method is known to solve the equations of motion for
a system with four or more bodies.
Instead, orbits with many bodies can be
approximated with arbitrarily high accuracy. These approximations
take two forms.
One form takes the pure elliptic motion as a
basis, and adds perturbation
terms to account for the gravitational influence of multiple
bodies. This is convenient for calculating the positions of
astronomical bodies. The equations of motion of the moon, planets
and other bodies are known with great accuracy, and are used to
generate tables for
celestial
navigation. Still there are secular
phenomena that have to be dealt with by
postnewtonian methods.
The differential
equation form is used for scientific or missionplanning
purposes. According to Newton's laws, the sum of all the forces
will equal the mass times its acceleration (F = ma). Therefore
accelerations can be expressed in terms of positions. The
perturbation terms are much easier to describe in this form.
Predicting subsequent positions and velocities from initial ones
corresponds to solving an initial
value problem. Numerical methods calculate the positions and
velocities of the objects a tiny time in the future, then repeat
this. However, tiny arithmetic errors from the limited accuracy of
a computer's math accumulate, limiting the accuracy of this
approach.
Differential simulations with large numbers of
objects perform the calculations in a hierarchical pairwise fashion
between centers of mass. Using this scheme, galaxies, star clusters
and other large objects have been simulated.
Analysis of orbital motion
 (See also orbit equation and Kepler's first law.)
Please note that the following is a classical
(Newtonian)
analysis of orbital mechanics, which assumes the more subtle
effects of general
relativity (like frame
dragging and
gravitational time dilation) are negligible. General relativity
does, however, need to be considered for some applications such as
analysis of extremely massive heavenly bodies, precise prediction
of a system's state after a long period of time, and in the case of
interplanetary travel, where fuel economy, and thus precision, is
paramount.
To analyze the motion of a body moving under the
influence of a force which is always directed towards a fixed
point, it is convenient to use polar
coordinates with the origin coinciding with the center of
force. In such coordinates the radial and transverse components of
the acceleration
are, respectively:
 a_r = \frac  r\left( \frac \right)^2
 a_ = \frac\frac\left( r^2\frac \right).
Since the force is entirely radial, and since
acceleration is proportional to force, it follows that the
transverse acceleration is zero. As a result,
 \frac\left( r^2\frac \right) = 0.
After integrating, we have
 r^2\frac =
which is actually the theoretical proof of
Kepler's 2nd law (A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps
out equal areas during equal intervals of time). The constant of
integration, h, is the
angular momentum per unit mass. It then follows that
 \frac = = hu^2
 u = .
 \frac + u = \frac.
In the case of gravity, Newton's
law of universal gravitation states that the force is
proportional to the inverse square of the distance:
 f(1/u) = a_r = = GM u^2
where G is the constant
of universal gravitation, m is the mass of the orbiting body
(planet), and M is the mass of the central body (the Sun).
Substituting into the prior equation, we have
 \frac + u = \frac.
So for the gravitational force – or,
more generally, for any inverse square force law – the
right hand side of the equation becomes a constant and the equation
is seen to be the harmonic
equation (up to a shift of origin of the dependent variable).
The solution is:
 u(\theta) = \frac + A \cos(\theta\theta_0)
The equation of the orbit described by the
particle is thus:
 r = \frac = \frac ,
where e is:
 e \equiv \frac\ .
In general, this can be recognized as the
equation of a conic
section in polar
coordinates (r, \theta). We can make a further connection with
the classic description of conic section with:
 \frac = a(1e^2)
Orbital planes
The analysis so far has been two dimensional; it turns out that an unperturbed orbit is two dimensional in a plane fixed in space, and thus the extension to three dimensions requires simply rotating the two dimensional plane into the required angle relative to the poles of the planetary body involved.The rotation to do this in three dimensions
requires three numbers to uniquely determine; traditionally these
are expressed as three angles.
Orbital period
The orbital period is simply how long an orbiting body takes to complete one orbit.Specifying orbits
It turns out that it takes a minimum 6 numbers to specify an orbit about a body, and this can be done in several ways. For example, specifying the 3 numbers specifying location and 3 specifying the velocity of a body gives a unique orbit that can be calculated forwards (or backwards). However, traditionally the parameters used are slightly different.The traditionally used set of orbital elements is
called the set of Keplerian elements, after Johannes
Kepler and his Kepler's
laws. The Keplerian elements are six:
 Inclination (i\,\!)
 Longitude of the ascending node (\Omega\,\!)
 Argument of periapsis (\omega\,\!)
 Eccentricity (e\,\!)
 Semimajor axis (a\,\!)
 Mean anomaly at epoch (M_o\,\!)
In principle once the orbital elements are known
for a body, its position can be calculated forward and backwards
indefinitely in time. However, in practice, orbits are affected,
perturbed, by forces other than gravity due to the central body and
thus the orbital elements change over time.
Orbital perturbations
An orbital perturbation is when a force or impulse which is much smaller than the overall force or average impulse of the main gravitating body and which is external to the two orbiting bodies causes an acceleration, which changes the parameters of the orbit over time.Radial, prograde and tranverse perturbations
It can be shown that a radial impulse given to a body in orbit doesn't change the orbital period (since it doesn't affect the angular momentum), but changes the eccentricity. This means that the orbit still intersects the original orbit in two places.For a prograde or retrograde impulse (i.e. an
impulse applied along the orbital motion), this changes both the
eccentricity as well as the orbital period, but any closed orbit
will still intersect the perturbation point. Notably, a prograde
impulse given at periapsis raises the altitude
at apoapsis, and vice
versa, and a retrograde impulse does the opposite.
A transverse force out of the orbital plane
causes rotation of the orbital plane.
Orbital decay
If some part of a body's orbit enters an atmosphere, its orbit can decay because of drag. Particularly at each periapsis, the object scrapes the air, losing energy. Each time, the orbit grows less eccentric (more circular) because the object loses kinetic energy precisely when that energy is at its maximum. This is similar to the effect of slowing a pendulum at its lowest point; the highest point of the pendulum's swing becomes lower. With each successive slowing more of the orbit's path is affected by the atmosphere and the effect becomes more pronounced. Eventually, the effect becomes so great that the maximum kinetic energy is not enough to return the orbit above the limits of the atmospheric drag effect. When this happens the body will rapidly spiral down and intersect the central body.The bounds of an atmosphere vary wildly. During
solar
maxima, the Earth's atmosphere causes drag up to a hundred
kilometres higher than during solar minima.
Some satellites with long conductive tethers can
also decay because of electromagnetic drag from the Earth's
magnetic field. Basically, the wire cuts the magnetic field,
and acts as a generator. The wire moves electrons from the near
vacuum on one end to the nearvacuum on the other end. The orbital
energy is converted to heat in the wire.
Orbits can be artificially influenced through the
use of rocket motors which change the kinetic energy of the body at
some point in its path. This is the conversion of chemical or
electrical energy to kinetic energy. In this way changes in the
orbit shape or orientation can be facilitated.
Another method of artificially influencing an
orbit is through the use of solar sails or
magnetic
sails. These forms of propulsion require no propellant or
energy input other than that of the sun, and so can be used
indefinitely. See statite for one such proposed
use.
Orbital decay can also occur due to tidal forces
for objects below the synchronous
orbit for the body they're orbiting. The gravity of the
orbiting object raises tidal bulges
in the primary, and since below the synchronous orbit the orbiting
object is moving faster than the body's surface the bulges lag a
short angle behind it. The gravity of the bulges is slightly off of
the primarysatellite axis and thus has a component along the
satellite's motion. The near bulge slows the object more than the
far bulge speeds it up, and as a result the orbit decays.
Conversely, the gravity of the satellite on the bulges applies
torque on the primary and
speeds up its rotation. Artificial satellites are too small to have
an appreciable tidal effect on the planets they orbit, but several
moons in the solar system are undergoing orbital decay by this
mechanism. Mars' innermost moon Phobos is a
prime example, and is expected to either impact Mars' surface or
break up into a ring within 50 million years.
Finally, orbits can decay via the emission of
gravitational
waves. This mechanism is extremely weak for most stellar
objects, only becoming significant in cases where there is a
combination of extreme mass and extreme acceleration, such as with
black
holes or neutron
stars that are orbiting each other closely.
Oblateness
The standard analysis of orbiting bodies assumes that all bodies consist of uniform spheres, or more generally, concentric shells each of uniform density. It can be shown that such bodies are gravitationally equivalent to point sources.However, in the real world, many bodies rotate,
and this introduces oblateness and distorts the
gravity field, and gives a
quadrupole moment to the gravitational field which is
significant at distances comparable to the radius of the
body.
The general effect of this is to change the
orbital parameters over time; predominantly this gives a rotation
of the orbital plane around the rotational pole of a central planet
(it perturbs the argument
of perigee) in a way that is dependent on the angle of orbital
plane to the equator as well as altitude at perigee.
Other gravitating bodies
The effects of other gravitating bodies can be very large. For example, the orbit of the Moon cannot be in any way accurately described without allowing for the action of the Sun's gravity as well as the Earth's.Earth orbits
Scaling in gravity
The gravitational constant G is measured to be: (6.6742 ± 0.001) × 10−11 N·m²/kg²
 (6.6742 ± 0.001) × 10−11 m³/(kg·s²)
 (6.6742 ± 0.001) × 10−11 (kg/m³)1s2.
Thus the constant has dimension density1 time2.
This corresponds to the following properties.
Scaling of
distances (including sizes of bodies, while keeping the densities
the same) gives similar
orbits without scaling the time: if for example distances are
halved, masses are divided by 8, gravitational forces by 16 and
gravitational accelerations by 2. Hence orbital periods remain the
same. Similarly, when an object is dropped from a tower, the time
it takes to fall to the ground remains the same with a scale model
of the tower on a scale model of the earth.
When all densities are multiplied by four, orbits
are the same, but with orbital velocities doubled.
When all densities are multiplied by four, and
all sizes are halved, orbits are similar, with the same orbital
velocities.
These properties are illustrated in the
formula
 GT^2 \sigma = 3\pi \left( \frac \right)^3,
for an elliptical orbit with semimajor
axis a, of a small body around a spherical body with radius r
and average density σ, where T is the orbital period.
Role in atomic theory
When atomic structure was first probed experimentally early in the twentieth century, an early picture of the atom portrayed it as a miniature solar system bound by the coulomb force rather than by gravity. This was inconsistent with electrodynamics and the model was progressively refined as quantum theory evolved, but there is a legacy of the picture in the term orbital for the wave function of an energetically bound electron state.See also
Types of orbit: Artificial satellite orbit
 Box orbit
 Circular orbit
 Elliptic orbit
 Geostationary or Clarke orbit
 Geosynchronous orbit
 Halo orbit
 Hohmann transfer orbit
 Lissajous orbit
 List of orbits
 Lyapunov orbit
 Molniya orbit
 Rosetta orbit
 Tundra orbit
 Orbital elements
 Semimajor axis
 Eccentricity
 Inclination
 Argument of periapsis
 Time of periapsis passage
 Celestial longitude of the ascending node
 Gravity, Gravitational slingshot, and Escape velocity
 Interplanetary Transport Network
 Kepler's laws of planetary motion
 Nbody problem
 Orbit (dynamics)
 Orbit equation
 Orbital spaceflight/Suborbital spaceflight
 Orbital maneuver, Retrograde motion
 Orbital mechanics
 Specific orbital energy
 Orbital period
 Orbital speed
 Trajectory, Hyperbolic and Parabolic trajectory
References
 Exploration of the Universe
orbit in Tosk Albanian: Umlaufbahn
orbit in Asturian: Órbita
orbit in Bengali: কক্ষপথ (গ্রহ)
orbit in Bosnian: Planetarna putanja
orbit in Bulgarian: Орбита
orbit in Catalan: Òrbita
orbit in Czech: Oběžná dráha
orbit in Danish: Omløbsbane
orbit in German: Umlaufbahn
orbit in Estonian: Orbiit
orbit in Spanish: Órbita
orbit in Esperanto: Orbito
orbit in Persian: مدار (سیاره)
orbit in French: Orbite
orbit in Scottish Gaelic: Reulchuairt
orbit in Galician: Órbita
orbit in Korean: 궤도
orbit in Ido: Orbito
orbit in Indonesian: Orbit
orbit in Italian: Orbita
orbit in Latvian: Orbīta
orbit in Luxembourgish: Ëmlafbunn
orbit in Lithuanian: Orbita
orbit in Hungarian: Pálya (csillagászat)
orbit in Dutch: Baan (hemellichaam)
orbit in Japanese: 軌道 (力学)
orbit in Norwegian: Bane
orbit in Norwegian Nynorsk: Bane
orbit in Uzbek: Mehvar
orbit in Low German: Ümloopbahn
orbit in Polish: Orbita
orbit in Portuguese: Órbita
orbit in Russian: Орбита
orbit in Sicilian: Òrbita
orbit in Simple English: Orbit
orbit in Slovak: Obežná dráha
orbit in Slovenian: Tir
orbit in Serbian: Орбита
orbit in Finnish: Kiertorata
orbit in Swedish: Omloppsbana
orbit in Thai: วงโคจร
orbit in Vietnamese: Quỹ đạo
orbit in Turkish: Yörünge
orbit in Ukrainian: Орбіта
orbit in Venetian: Òrbita
orbit in Chinese: 轨道 (力学)
Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words
Earth insertion, LEM, LM, O, air lane, ambit, annular muscle, annulus, aphelion, apogee, area, arena, areola, astronomical longitude,
attitudecontrol rocket, aureole, autumnal equinox,
bailiwick, ball, ballistic capsule, balloon, beat, bladder, blob, boll, bolus, border, borderland, bubble, bulb, bulbil, bulblet, burn, capsule, celestial equator,
celestial longitude, celestial meridian, chaplet, circle, circling, circuit, circuiteer, circuition, circuitousness, circuitry, circularity, circulate, circulation, circumambience, circumambiency, circumambulate, circumambulation,
circumference,
circumflexion,
circumlocution,
circummigrate,
circummigration,
circumnavigate,
circumnavigation,
circumvent, circus, close the circle, closed
circle, colures, come
full circle, compass,
constituency,
corona, coronet, course, crown, cycle, deepspace ship, demesne, department, describe a
circle, deviance,
deviancy, deviation, deviousness, diadem, digression, discipline, discus, disk, docking, docking maneuver,
domain, dominion, ecliptic, ellipsoid, encircle, encompass, equator, equinoctial, equinoctial
circle, equinoctial colure, equinox, eternal return,
excursion, excursus, extension, extent, fairy ring, ferry rocket,
field, flank, flight path, footing, fuel ship, full circle,
galactic longitude, garland, geocentric longitude,
geodetic longitude, geoid,
girdle, girdle the globe,
globe, globelet, globoid, globule, glomerulus, glory, go about, go around, go
round, go the round, gob,
gobbet, great circle,
gyre, gyring, halo, heliocentric longitude,
hemisphere, indirection, injection, insertion, itinerary, judicial circuit,
jurisdiction,
knob, knot, lap, lasso, line, logical circle, longitude, loop, looplet, lunar excursion module,
lunar module, magic circle, make a circuit, manned rocket, march, meandering, meridian, module, moon ship, multistage
rocket, noose, oblate
spheroid, orb, orbiting, orblet, pale, parking orbit, path, pellet, perigee, perihelion, period, precinct, primrose path,
prolate spheroid, province, purview, radius, reach, realm, reentry, revolution, revolve, ring, road, rocket, rondelle, rondure, round, round trip, roundaboutness, roundel, rounding, rounds, route, run, saucer, scope, sea lane, shortcut, shuttle rocket,
skirt, small circle, soft
landing, solstitial colure, space capsule, space docking, space
rocket, spacecraft,
spaceship, sphere, sphere of influence,
spheroid, spherule, sphincter, spiral, spiraling, stamping ground,
subdiscipline,
surround, sweep, territory, tour, track, trade route, traject, trajectory, trajet, turf, turn, turning, vantage, vernal equinox, vicious
circle, walk, wheel, wheeling, wreath, zodiac, zone